The quest to understand the lived experience and the philosophical structures of experience and consciousness is the focus of a movement that began in the early years of the 20th Century. The movement is called phenomenology because the movement explores the lived experience of phenomena. Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger were two of the prominent philosophers who developed this method of inquiry though each took a significantly different philosophical approach to understanding human experience. In this assignment, you will discuss the psychology research methods that emerged from the philosophies of Husserl and Heidegger and the researchers who developed those methods.

General Requirements:

  • This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
  • Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
  • This assignment requires that at least two scholarly research sources related to this topic, and at least one in-text citation from each source be included.
  • You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the directions in the Student Success Center.

Directions:

Write a paper (1,250-1,500 words) in which you discuss both the phenomenological research methods in psychology that emerged from the philosophies of Husserl and Heidegger and the theorists/psychologists who developed those methods. Include the following in your paper:

  1. A discussion of at least two phenomenological research methods that emerged from the phenomenological philosophy of Husserl. What were the central tenets of each method? What is known about the theorists/psychologists who developed each method?
  2. A discussion of at least two phenomenological research methods that emerged from the phenomenological philosophy of Heidegger. What were the central tenets of each method? What is known about the theorists/psychologists who developed each method?
  3. A contrast of the primary differences among the phenomenological research methods identified above. How does each method address approaches to data gathering, data analysis, and the role of the researcher?
  4. A research-based statement of and rationale for the method you believe allows the best understanding of human experience.

CCMH/525: Research Methods For Mental Health Counselors

Wk 2 Discussion 3 [due Mon]

Wk 2 Discussion 3 [due Mon]

Discussion Topic

Review this week’s course materials and learning activities, and reflect on your learning so far this week. Respond to one or more of the following prompts in one to two paragraphs:

In chapter 5 of Cozy & Bates (2015) different ways to measure variables are discussed. Thinking to your final research project discuss a method you will utilize and discuss why. If the types of methods are confusing please list what you feel you know, and what methods are confusing. Think about a correlation vs. an experiment for example.

Students need to contribute two substantive posts in this discussion by the due date indicated. The substantive posts can be any combination of responses and replies.

Copyright 2018 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.

Responses (8)

Use this space to start a discussion!

Make an initial post to start a discussion. Participants can add responses and replies.

Marie Elien

3 hours ago, at 7:25 AM NEW

In chapter 5, the authors talk about reliability. I’m a bit confused on whether reliability can be repeated. On page 101, the authors stated, ” when conducting research, you can measure each person only once; you cannot give the measure 50 or 100 times to discover a true score” ( cozby & Bates, 2015) . When reading this, to me it sounds like reliability can’t be repeated. Than on page 102, the authors talked about ” test-retest reliability- assessed by measuring the same individuals at two points in time” ( cozby & Bates, 2015). For my understanding, it’s now saying that reliability can be repeated and if the results are similar it is reliable. My question is can reliability repeated at anytime?

Reference

cozby, P, C., & Bates, S. C., (2015). Methods in behavioral research (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Reply

Marie Elien

4 hours ago, at 6:50 AM NEW

For my final research topic the best way to measure it is by interview and observation. I would ask my participants questions such as “being on a long-term antipsychotic treatment do you find your thinking process the same or is it getting slower?”. I will also question them about their memories ability, I will also examined them on how long they can focus on a task. I’m guessing this approach is called “face validity– the evidence for validity is that the measure appears on the face of it to measure what is supposed to measure” (Cozby & Bates, 2015). I will also observe their behavior while they are under treatment. This approach is called “interrater reliability- is the extend to which raters agree in their observations” ( Cozby & Bates, 2015).

Reference:

Cozby, P, C., & Bates, S. C., (2015). Methods in behavioral research. (12th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Reply

Nicole Coalter

12 hours ago, at 10:31 PM

I think for my final project in research I would like to be able to measure the reliability of what I am researching. After reading the text I saw more formal ways to know what reliability in research is. The two ways are that compromise each other are true score and measurement error. True score in the text means the real score of measurement and measurement error means that the score is unreliable (Cozy & Bates, 2015). I think as going into the counseling field understanding reliability as a consistent and stable measure of behavior will help better understand our clients. I feel that behavior is the biggest thing as future counselors we look at in treating clients. Whether the behavior is good or bad; how do we overall keep improving the positive behavior and help the client to change his or her own behavior those are my thoughts. What are is the class thoughts on this?

Reference: Reference: Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. C. (2015). Methods In behavioral research (12th ed.). Boston, MA:  McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Reply

Katie Diaz

17 hours ago, at 6:14 PM

As we progress in this class i am changing what my initial research question and focusing it down to something more specific. I think that my research question now is going to focus more on how depression affect people in the workplace, this way there are not very many variables to determine and it has one main focus. So with that in mind I think that best approach would be to do interviews and surveys to see how much a person’s depressions affects their work habits. By doing interviews it would have to be done by two people so that the “Interrater reliability is the extent to which raters agree in their observations” (Cozby, 2015). That way each person will be able to read the person’s actions and truly see how much depression is affecting them in the workplace.

Reference: Cozby, P. C., & Bates, S. C. (2015). Methods In behavioral research (12th ed.). Boston, MA:

McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Montaigne Forum Assignment 

BOOK: Michel de Montaigne, Essays. Penguin.

Assignment:

Whereas medieval society thought of the individual in terms of his or her social role and in relation to God, the Renaissance rediscovered the classical view of the individual and introduced “humanism”: the belief that human beings were of interest in and of themselves.  It is from this major intellectual and cultural movement that we derive our concept of “the humanities,” which are the core of any liberal arts education even today.

One of the greatest and most influential humanists of the later Renaissance was the French writer Michel de Montaigne (1533-92).

In his “essays” (from the French verb essayer, meaning to try or attempt something), he sought to understand how to live a good life through understanding himself and the world around him.

For this forum assignment, post a response of approximately 150-200 words. 

Like many Renaissance humanists, Montaigne was deeply concerned with education.

Looking at his essay “On the Education of Children” (49-86), what do you think Montaigne considers most important elements of educating a child?  Are his ideas relevant for educating children today?

Again, i don’t need a paper. I just need a paragraph with atleast 150 – 200 words and has be cited from the book only. No other source.  

Ethical, Social, and Legal Implications of Disclosure

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, be sure to read the required articles for this week. .

You are a consulting psychologist for a local clinic and have been asked to review an ethically complex case. Please review the PSY699 Week four discussion case file (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for detailed information on the case under review. FILE IS ATTACHED BELOW

In your initial post, explain how the APA Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct can be used to guide decisions in this ethically complex situation. Provide a suggested course of action for the clinic staff. Given the daughter’s age and the situation presented, integrate concepts developed from different psychological content domains to support your suggested course of action. Be certain to use evidence-based psychological concepts and theories to support your arguments. You may wish to consider the following questions as you construct your post.

  • Does the daughter have a right to know her diagnosis?
  • Does the mother have a right to not disclose the diagnosis to her daughter?
  • Does the mother have a right to privacy regarding her own diagnosis, which could be threatened if her daughter learns of her own status?
  • Should the staff tell the daughter if the mother does not want her to know?
  • If the daughter wants to know more about her condition, what should the staff say?
  • Are there other approaches the staff can take? If so, what are they?
  • Is further information required in order for you to create an ethically sound suggested course of action?

Require reading

American Psychological Association. (2010). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct: Including 2010 amendments (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/index.aspx

  • This document outlines a series of ethical standards, guidelines, and aspirational goals to guide psychologists.

Aultman, J. M. & Borges, N. J. (2011). The ethics of HIV testing and disclosure for healthcare professionals: What do our future doctors think? Medical Teacher, 33(1), e50-56. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2011.530311

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. This study examined future medical professionals’ beliefs and attitudes regarding mandatory HIV testing and disclosure.

Bird, J. D. P., Fingerhut, D. D., & McKirnan, D. J. (2011). Ethnic differences in HIV-disclosure and sexual riskAIDS Care, 23(4), 444-448. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2010.507757

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. This article explores ethnic differences in HIV-disclosure to sexual partners and the relationship between HIV-disclosure and sexual risk.

Edwards, L. L., Reis, J. S., & Weber, K. M. (2013). Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-infected parentsAmerican Journal of Public Health, 103(8), 1468-1475.  doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2012.301111

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. This article examines HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication.

Heeren, G. A. (2011). Changing methods of disclosure: Literature review of disclosure to children with terminal illnesses, including HIVInnovation – The European Journal of Social Science Research, 24(1-2), 199-208. doi: 10.1080/13511610.2011.553506

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. This article provides a review of the literature on methods of disclosure to children with terminal illnesses.

Maiorana, A., Koester, K. A., Myers, J. J., Lloyd, K. C., Shade, S. B., Dawson-Rose, C., & Morin, S. F. (2012). Helping patients talk about HIV: Inclusion of messages on disclosure in prevention with positive interventions in clinical settingsAIDS Education and Prevention, 24(2), 179–192. doi: 10.1521/aeap.16.5.459.48741

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. The authors of this article examined patients’ self-reports regarding disclosure messages they found relevant as part of prevention efforts in clinical settings.

Nam, S. L., Fielding, K., Avalos, A., Gaolathe, T., Dickinson, D., & Geissler, P. W. (2009). Discussing matters of sexual health with children: What issues relating to disclosure of parental HIV status revealAIDS Care, 21(3), 389-395. doi: 10.1080/09540120802270276

  • The full-text version of this article can be accessed through the EBSCOhost database in the Ashford University Library. This article explores issues pertaining to the disclosure of parents’ own HIV status to their children in Africa.
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    PSY699WeekFou

Recall from our unit on logic and critical thinking that we are subject to confirmation biasPreview the document. This is the idea that we notice information that confirms our beliefs and we tend to ignore information that disconfirms them. We also read about Rapoport’s rulesPreview the document. When we evaluate arguments we try to give the strongest version of them we can. We could extend this idea that positions people hold. If we are interested in the truth, then we should consider the strongest argument we know of for that position. Together, Let’s evaluate the arguments for the existence of God that we have studied so far with confirmation bias and Rapoport’s rules in mind.

  • Review confirmation bias
  • Review rapoport’s rules
  • Evaluate the Arguments for the Existence of God

For your initial post, identify the argument for the existence of God that you think is the strongest. Note: this is possible regardless of whether you are actually convinced by this argument or if you actually agree with the conclusion that God exists. Briefly explain why you think this is the best argument of those we have studied. This should take two to three paragraphs (100 words or more each).

You must include an explanation of either Aquinas’ argument or Paley’s argument. Cite page numbers, and include bibliography. These arguments are found in Vaughn, chapter 2.

In addition, explain the objection that you think is the best objection AGAINST the argument for the existence of God that you selected above. Here we are trying to avoid confirmation bias by trying to falsify the best argument in favor of a position. This should be done in another one or two paragraphs (100 words or more each).

Setting Boundaries When Working with Clients

Prior to beginning work on this week’s discussion, please review Standard 3: Human Relations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. in the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Please also read the Asay and Lal (2014) “Who’s Googled Whom? Trainees’ Internet and Online Social Networking Experiences, Behaviors, and Attitudes with Clients and Supervisors,” Harris and Robinson Kurpius (2014) “Social Networking and Professional Ethics: Client Searches, Informed Consent, and Disclosure,” and Taylor, McMinn, Bufford, and Chang (2010) “Psychologists’ Attitudes and Ethical Concerns Regarding the Use of Social Networking Web Sites” articles.

For this discussion, you will examine ethical issues encountered by clinical and counseling psychologists in the digital age. Begin by reviewing the cases of Dr. Arnold and Dr. Washington listed below and selecting one of these ethical dilemmas for analysis.

Case 1
Dr. Arnold is a clinical psychologist who specializes in child and adolescent issues. From time to time, she provides consultation on high lethality cases within the juvenile court system. Recently, she was referred a case involving a 15-year-old male who has a history of aggression, angry outburst, destructive behavior, and cyberstalking.  Concerned for her safety and well-being, Dr. Arnold input the client’s name into a search engine, which yielded the client’s social network page. Dr. Arnold is uncertain whether or not to look at the client’s social network page.

Case 2
Dr. Washington is a counseling psychologist who specializes in trauma and self-harming behavior. Recently, he received a “friend request” from a former client who he provided individual therapy to six months ago. Dr. Washington opted not to accept the “friend request,” but considered sending a private message to the client with the social networking policy from his informed consent.  Dr. Washington is uncertain whether or not to send the private message to the client.

In your initial post, assume the role of a colleague to the doctor named and analyze the ethical issues encountered in your chosen case. Given the situation described in the case study, recommend how your colleague should proceed. Provide support for your response by citing the required articles for this discussion. Consider the current and potential actions of your colleague and explain whether or not he or she is currently, or potentially will be, in violation of the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Provide support for your explanation by citing Standard 3: Human Relations (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. in the APA’s Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct. Explain how your colleague might avoid this type of ethical dilemma in the future. Describe what policy or policies you might put in place if you were your colleague.

Guided Response: Review several of your colleagues’ posts and respond to at least two of your peers who chose a case study different from the one you selected by 11:59 p.m. on Day 7 of the week. You are encouraged to post your required replies earlier in the week to promote more meaningful interactive discourse in this discussion.

In your responses, evaluate the recommendations suggested by your peer. State whether you agree or disagree with your peer’s recommendation to the doctor on how to proceed. Suggest other ethical implications your peer may not have considered in this case. What follow up questions might you ask your peer to aid in the ethical assessment of the case? In addition to the suggestions provided by your peer, what recommendations might you make to the doctor so that he or she might avoid these types of dilemmas in the future? What additions or changes might you make to the policy or policies suggested by your peer?

Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future.

For this Discussion, reflect on your experiences if you have ever participated in a political campaign. What was the outcome of your participation? If you have not participated in a campaign, choose a campaign topic you support or oppose and consider the ways you might like to participate in that campaign. Likewise, think about your experiences if you have ever lobbied on a topic. If you have not, choose a topic for which you might like to lobby in favor or against. Finally, consider how you think social workers might have a powerful and positive effect as elected officials.

By Day 4

Post an explanation of the role of lobbying and campaigning in social work practice. Then, explain how you think social workers might have a powerful and positive effect as elected officials. Finally, explain of the impact, if any, the experiences and opinions of your colleagues have had on your own experiences and opinions.

 

Required Readings

Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. M. (Eds.). (2014). Social work case studies: Foundation year. Baltimore: MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
“Working With Survivors of Sexual Abuse and Trauma: The Case of Rita” (pp. 81–83)

Rome, S., Harris, S., & Hoechstetter, S. (2010). Social work and civic engagement: The political participation of professional social workers. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 37(3), 107–129.
Note: Retrieved from Walden Library databases.

Plummer, S. -B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. (Eds.). (2014). Sessions: Case histories. Baltimore: MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. [Vital Source e-reader].
Part 1, “The Johnson Family” (pp. 11–13)

Popple, P. R., & Leighninger, L. (2015). The policy-based profession: An introduction to social welfare policy analysis for social workers. (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education..
Chapter 12, “Taking Action: Policy Practice for Social Workers” (pp. 262-283)
Chapter 13, “Conclusion” (pp. 284-289)

Required Media

Laureate Education (Producer). (2013). Sessions: Johnson family (Episode 4 of 42) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://class.waldenu.edu

Accessible player –Downloads–Download Video w/CCDownload AudioDownload Transcript

The paper should be an “argumentative” paper, that is, you should expand on a topic, point, or thesis, and convey your best supportive arguments for it. An “argumentative” paper does not mean you are going to “argue”, and this should be self-explanatory, but some students ask me this question regularly. An argumentative paper is a paper in which you advance a thesis framed in form of a question; that distinguishes it from a purely “descriptive paper”. In other words, let’s say you are interested on Erickson’s stages of development. Rather than writing a paper describing the stages of development, I rather you ask for example “Were Erickson’s own struggles with identity part of his motivation for his theory”? Now we have a good paper on the making.  You should also note the facts or factors that counter your argument. Finally, you should write a summary or conclusion that takes into account the arguments pro and con.

As with any other good paper, you should have an introduction, a main body of the paper (separated in sections as needed) and a conclusion. Since I want you to use APA style, your paper should also have a short Abstract and a Bibliography (3 to 5 citations), and should be free of misspellings errors. The length of the paper should be at least 2000 words.

In summary, your paper should follow this outline:

The paper should be written using APA format ONLY, and it should be minimum -2,000words long not counting title page and bibliography. The paper has to have a title page, followed by an Abstract in which summarizes the main idea of your paper. Then you should have an introduction followed by the main body of your paper. Finally a Conclusion and a Bibliography. Therefore your paper outline should be as follows:

  1. Title Page
  2. Abstract
  3. Introduction
  4. Main body of your paper
  5. Conclusion

If you have never written an APA style paper I suggest you consult your Librarian for guidance or information on APA style. 

Here is a limited List of approved topics. You are not bound to follow this list and may choose to write on another topic, which is fine. However, your chosen topic needs to relate to the description, goals and subject matter for this course. Fringe topics (UFO’s for example) are not appropriate and if you worry about it, better check with me.

List:

  • Identity (issues, development, gender, concerns, need for, etc)
  • The Self, Being, Personhood, etc.
  • Gender Issues
  • Freedom and choice, Self-actualization
  • Psychopathology (as it relates to Personal Growth)
  • Personality (development, characteristics, etc)
  • Stress, Resilience.
  • Philosophical bases for Personhood, growth, Self-actualization
  • Psychological theories related to Self-actualization or Personal growth
  • The meaning of Being Human
  • Interpersonal relationships (conflict, resolution, marriage, friendship, etc)
  • Sex, love, compassion, altruism.
  • Death and dying (as a context for a more fulfilling life), Illness.
  • Spirituality, myth and self-growth, etc.
  • Improving the quality of your life (money, work, values, and vocation).
  • Analysis of a life history (Biography) that may illustrate some topics we discuss in here.

After reviewing information about the professional disclosure statement in your text, Orientation to the Counseling Profession, complete an Internet search for the professional disclosure statements described in this unit’s studies.

Now, imagine that you are a fully licensed independent counselor working in the specialization you aspire to, and create a professional disclosure statement of your own. Include general headings such as:

  • Contact Information.
  • Education and Experience.
  • Credentials.
  • Description of Practice.
  • Fee Scale.
  • Client Responsibilities.
  • Limits to Confidentiality and Emergency Protocols.
  • Complaint Procedure.

You may also use the professional disclosure statement you created in the media activity, Creating a Professional Counseling Disclosure Statement.

Post a copy of your professional disclosure statement in the discussion area for peer and instructor feedback. You will refine this statement many times through the years; this will be your first draft.

Response Guidelines

Respond to a learner who has posted a disclosure statement that differs from yours and note the differences. What can you incorporate from his or her statement that can help strengthen the content of your statement?

Review other learners’ professional disclosure statements for ideas on how you could improve your own. Use the feedback you obtain from your peers and your professor to polish the professional disclosure statement that you are preparing for the Unit 4 assignment, Practice Plan.

Learning Components

This activity will help you achieve the following learning components:

  • Compare examples of professional disclosures/contract statement to notice how laws, ethical guidelines, licenses, and professional credentials are noted.
  • Identify a professional counseling disclosure statement, meeting ethical and legal standards, that discloses credentials, licenses, and certifications.
  • Locate Web sites for counselors in your area, and search for professional disclosure statements (sometimes called treatment contracts or counselor-client contracts) on these Web sites.

On the pros and cons of intelligence testing. I have a whole outline done already with specific sources and a strict rubric, please message me so I can send you pictures of the rubric and my outline and these sources. I have a huge biology exam on Tuesday and I just don’t have time to write this psychology paper. I need it by tomorrow, April 29th, 2019 at noon west coast time the latest. Again, message me for all details please!